Pain Management

Value added course on Pain Management

 

Class: 3rd year B.Sc(N)                                                 

Theory  Hours   : 30 hrs

 

Aim:

The aim of the course is to enhance knowledge about the phenomenon of pain, pain alleviation by means of drugs and other methods and providing practice in pain measurement and documentation.

Objectives:

  • Prepares students for advanced practice roles as clinical experts
  • Apply theoretical, patho-physiological and pharmacological principles and evidence base in implementing therapies / interventions in pain management
  • Students will be able to explain the origin of pain and different mechanism of pain treatments
  • Identify, analyze and assess causes of the pain and evaluate the patients nursing needs in and its treatment
  • Carry out nursing interventions independently and in cross professional cooperation to mitigate pain in the patient and document nursing interventions.

 

Goals:

The primary goal of the Pain Rehabilitation Center is to restore functioning and improve quality of life for persons suffering with chronic pain. The program emphasizes the discontinuation of opioids for the treatment of chronic benign pain and the return to a fulfilling lifestyle. Other important goals include:

  • Return to regular daily activities
  • Increase physical strength, stamina and flexibility
  • Reduce/eliminate use of pain medications
  • Minimize pain behaviors
  • Learn stress management techniques
  • Return to gainful employment (if applicable)
  • Resume leisure and recreational activities
  • Improve interpersonal relationships
  • Reduce reliance on health-care professionals, with improved ability to self-manage chronic pain    

                                 

Unit Content Hours
I I.            Multidimensional Nature of Pain

A.            Definitions of pain and associated anatomy and physiology

B.            Anatomy and physiology of pain

•        Role of the nervous system in the in the transduction, transmission, perception, and modulation of pain, including contemporary theories about pain

1.            Types of pain based on duration

·        Acute pain

·        Persistent postsurgical pain

·        Chronic pain

C.            Types of pain based on mechanism

1.            Nociceptive pain (somatic, visceral)

2.            Nociplastic pain

3.            Neuropathic pain

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II D.            Factors influencing Pain 

E.            Biological factors

§  Age

§  Sex

§  Cognitive development/impairment

 

 

Psychological factors

§  Cognitive (control, self-efficacy, catastrophizing, beliefs, appraisals, expectancies)

§  Affective (depression, anxiety, anger, personality)

§  Coping style/skills

F.            Social factors

•        Culture

•        Family learning

•        Gender

•        Ethnicity

G.            Impact of unrelieved pain

•        Physical effects

•        Psychological effects

•        Social and other effects of unrelieved pain (e.g., spiritual)

•        Impact of acute pain on recovery

•        Development of persistent pain

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III II.            Pain Assessment and Measurement

•        Pain assessment across the lifespan

•        Patients who are unable to communicate effectively due to disease or treatment

A.            Use appropriate pharmacologic pain-relieving interventions

•        Goals of pain management

•        Concept of multimodal analgesia

•        Pharmacologic interventions for pain management for non-opioid and opioid analgesics and adjuvant drugs:

•        WHO analgesics Ladder: the concept

10

                       

 

Unit Content Hours
  •        Chemical Health Education

•        Complementary Therapies

•        Education and Group Therapy

•        Stress Management and Relaxation

•        Physical Therapy

•        Occupational Therapy

•        Biofeedback

•        Sleep Hygiene

•        Lifestyle Management

 
IV A.            Use appropriate non-pharmacologic interventions for pain management

•        Physical strategies (e.g., exercise, turning and positioning, massage, heat, cold, hydrotherapy)

•        Psychological strategies (e.g., distraction, relaxation techniques, cognitive-behavioral strategies, stress management, patient and family education, and counselling)

•        Health promotion and self-management

•        Knowledge of alternative pain-management strategies; for example, neurostimulation (transcutaneous nerve stimulation [TENS], acupuncture, epidural stimulation, brain and spinal cord stimulation, neuroablative strategies (neurolytic nerve blocks, neurosurgical techniques), and palliative radiotherapy (cancer pain)

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V II.            Clinical Conditions

·        Acute pain associated with trauma, surgery, or acute medical conditions

·        Pain conditions in palliative care and at end of life, including hospice, home care, and long-term care

A.            Common chronic pain conditions

•        Low back pain

•        Arthritis

•        Headache

•        Cancer pain

•        Neuropathic pain conditions

•        Fibromyalgia

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Conditions for completion of the course:The student:
1. Must attend 80% of the theory hours during the course.
2. Must upgrade the required skills to be revised through this course.

 

Scheme of Examination:

Sl. No Scheme of evaluation Marks allotted Duration
1 Classroom Assignment 10
2 Clinical Assignment 10
3 Test/ Written Examination 30 1 Hour
TOTAL 50  

Type of Question Paper for test:
1. MCQ’s:
20 MCQ’s X 1 Mark = 20 marks
2. Short Essays:
2 Short essays X 5 Marks = 10 marks
The examination will be conducted by Institute of Nursing Sciences, Belgaum.
• At the end of the course a test will be conducted to assess the performance & acquired knowledge & skills.
• In order to pass a candidate should obtain at least 50% marks respectively in class assignment, clinical assignment & the test of this course.